Performance Enhancement through Improved Endurance

Muscular endurance is the ability to create maximum force for a maximum amount of time. The amount of force becomes smaller as time increases. Anaerobic and aerobic are the two main types of muscular endurance, but there are other meaningful types of endurance, as well. Improving endurance is of great importance to both professional athletes and non-professionals alike. Various training regimens can improve endurance, but different types of endurance may require different programs; it’s important to know the distinctions.

Why Endurance Training

Conditioning/endurance training causes muscular adaptations, forcing muscles to work more efficiently even when not exercising. When the neuromuscular system faces increased demands, it adapts with increases in muscular function. A key adaptation is an increase in mitochondria with an increase in respiratory capacity. One consequence of the adaptations induced in muscle by endurance exercise is that the same work rate requires a smaller percentage of the muscles’ maximum respiratory capacity. Another valued adaptation of endurance training is the increased utilization of fat, with a proportional decrease in carbohydrate utilization, during submaximal exercise. The muscles actually work more efficiently and burn off more fat doing so, even when not exercising at one’s peak performance.

Endurance and Cellular Changes

Mitochondria metabolize many of the damaging byproducts of anaerobic exercise, which is why anaerobic performance can be improved by improving aerobic endurance. Thus, endurance training’s effect on mitochondria is significant. Research has shown that endurance exercise training induces an increase in the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle. That’s not the only adaptation, even to mitochondria: Skeletal muscle mitochondria undergo an alteration in composition in response to endurance training, with some enzymes increasing two to threefold. Endurance training changes how muscles work on a cellular level, even transforming muscle fibers from one type to another.

Anaerobic Muscular Endurance and Training

Anaerobic endurance is characterized by energy use for a very short period of time, less than ten seconds. In an anaerobic state, the muscles need more energy than is readily supplied, so they use energy reserves to fuel activity. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the preferred energy source, which may become depleted in as little as three seconds. When ATP is depleted, the muscles use Phosphate-Creatine (PC) to create more ATP. Both are exhausted within about ten seconds, at which point the muscles begin glycolysis, or the breakdown of carbohydrates for energy. While glycolysis restores the ATP stores, it also produces hydrogen ions, causing that familiar burning sensation in one’s muscles. Glycolysis may last for up to sixty seconds, though the body soon turns to aerobic forms of energy.

In terms of anaerobic training, the periodization technique has become the mainstay in the majority of weight training programs. The periodized program is a method of changing workouts over time to allow for better recovery and therefore greater gains in strength. It seeks the ideal stress-to-recovery relationship so as to maximize muscular adaptations. Studies have shown that order and intensity of training affect endurance results: Gradual increases in volume and decreases in intensity may result in greater gains in muscular endurance than the classic strength programs that gradually increase intensity and decrease volume regardless of the frequency of these alterations.

Aerobic Muscular Endurance and Training

Aerobic endurance is characterized by longer periods of exertion and the body’s use of oxygen to create energy. It is slower-paced than is anaerobic activity, but it can continue for significantly longer periods of time. This is the energy system used for running marathons or swimming many miles. The oxygen prevents muscles from producing lactate. Aerobic endurance provides the basic foundation of human activity.

Those who want to increase pure aerobic endurance might follow an extensive volume endurance training regimen where intensity is low, but distance is high. This might be the preference of distance runners, cyclers, and so on. Alternately, athletes can follow an intensive endurance training regimen, which increases the intensity of the workout with slightly less volume. It has been characterized as giving the most aerobic benefit for the time input.

Endurance Training Continued:

People seeking to improve endurance must be mindful of the type of endurance. Different types may require different training regimens to achieve peak performance. There exists a continuum from pure endurance athletes to pure power athletes, from those that depend on aerobic endurance to anaerobic endurance. Many athletes fall somewhere in between, with a mix of aerobic and anaerobic endurance requirements, like the soccer player who needs to be able to run for the whole game, but also to sprint after the ball. Where someone falls in that continuum affects what type of endurance training is most useful.

Threshold Training

Threshold training is extended training at one’s peak performance level. A person’s threshold is the highest intensity that can be sustained for a long period of time, usually an hour. It’s a good predictor of competition performance, so improving it is often a key goal for athletes. Everyone is different, but the threshold is determined by the level of waste build-up in one’s system; one way to improve the body’s waste-removal process is to improve aerobic endurance.

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been a commonly-used training technique in recent years. By intercutting durations of exercise at peak performance with durations at lower intensity, athletes can conceivably do more volume at their threshold level than they could if they worked straight through at their threshold. All of these training regimens increase demand on the muscles, thus causing them to increase performance.

Sweet spot training falls between intensive endurance training and threshold training. It’s the point at which an athlete is maximizing effort but can still get in a significant volume, thus achieving a training effect. It’s considered a good way to increase speed and power at the threshold, but it is quite a slog. It’s not as grueling as threshold training, of course.

Endurance Training for Non-Professional Athletes

Non-professional athletes have different physical characteristics than professional athletes. A professional athlete will have a lower heart rate, an enlarged heart, increased cardiac output, and even increased muscle enzymes. Yet endurance is necessary even for non-professionals, for those who just want to participate in recreational sports. Stamina, being able to last the full competition while remaining alert, is essential. Given the time limitations most people have ? due to working jobs and living lives, rather than training full-time ? intensive endurance training is likely the best option for improving aerobic endurance within a manageable time commitment.

But non-professional athletes should make sure never to start out with threshold training. Doing so is both inefficient and likely to cause injury, which undermines the very point of the training. Still, if they go about it smartly, training will help improve endurance for non-professional athletes and professionals alike.

learn Sprint Training – The Importance of Speed Endurance Training

Being a great sprinter means that you need to get the total package. You need to have a good top-end speed and great speed endurance. You also need to get a excellent amount of strength which will keep you from having injured during the season. Right now I’m going to talk to you about developing stamina.

Developing speed endurance is not an simple task to take on. The workouts could often be grueling. More often than not you will find sprinters throwing up all over the track after a hard workout. But then they realize that when it comes down to race day its will always be worth the pain. Getting this type of stamina also allows you to chase down competitors in the longer distances such as the 200 and 400 m dash. Getting a good level of stamina will also create running the 100m dash feel like a walk in the park.

So how do you develop a good level of speed endurance? Developing this type of stamina more often than not calls for running anywhere from 150 m to 350 m. The rest between each run is about 5 to 10 minutes determined by how intense the workout is. And if you are performing a workout that involves running 350 m runs you will need to create sure you get at least 10 minutes rest between each run. Always remember the goal here is quality over quantity.

Doing too much speed endurance can often hinder your own raw speed. So try to perform this type of training no in excess of twice a week. And also make sure that you vary the intensity as a result you can effortlessly over train.

Speed Endurance Training to Chase Down Your Competitors Like They Were Standing Still

And if you are sick and fatigued of getting passed up every time at the end of your own sprint races you should understand that you now need to start working on your own speed endurance. Working on your own speed endurance is very imperative to your own overall speed. You can have all the quickness in the world but it wouldn’t matter and if you get passed up each and every single time. In fact it can be very embarrassing if you are constantly blasting out the blocks in the lead and then slowly get passed up at the end of the race.

In order to prevent this from happening you must incorporate the proper training program. When you begin to perform your speed endurance training sessions you ought create sure that you are possibly warmed up. A typical warm-up includes running two laps around the track with some dynamic stretches towards the end.

By utilizing the proper warm-up routine you are making sure that you’ll not pull any muscles during practice. Now that your warm-up is out the way you can now begin to focus on your training session. When you first begin your own speed endurance training session you can start off with simple workout such as running four 150 m sprints. In between the sprints you should create sure that you are rested for at least 10 to 15 minutes.

You do not want to start running with ugly form just because you’re worn-out. Try to focus on the quality of your own workouts more than the quantity each and every single time you step on the track.

Looking To Build Up Your Cycling Endurance Training?

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Cycling endurance training is one of the best ways to keep yourself in shape for races or just for everyday activities that require amounts of endurance to get you though the day. Even if you are the casual cycling rider or if you get into the big races the routine for cycling endurance training is still the same.

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There are a few different techniques for gaining strength and stamina throughout you’re cycling endurance training workout for the day. But if you want to get to the front of the pack and make sure that you will stay there then this will drastically help you improve your stamina levels and power. One of the biggest muscle groups that will be tortured in the races is the legs. And there are lots of different exercises that can be done to help strengthen and build stamina. Some of my favorites are getting creative with the leg squats. If you can do a one legged squat then you’re already doing excellent. For starters just try this one out sit on a chair or raised flat area and extend one leg out then try to stand up without letting the leg touch the ground. As your legs develop your cycling endurance training will get easier as the time goes by.

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Other types of squats that I like to alter are the basics but try to do the one mentioned before with ankle weights on. Yes that’s right if you are comfortable with doing a good couple sets normally then set the bar higher and add weight. The reason for this is when you remove the weights you will be able to do these much easier and gain a lot of stamina when there are no weights on your body this will also make your cycling endurance training an easier task as well.

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Then its on to the hill climbs, the same thing applies here as you go to climb a hill, but this time try to weigh yourself down a little and see how far you can make it up the hill without changing gears. Once you reach the highest you can go start from the bottom again, repeat and see if you can go further than last time. If you can climb a hill with weight on in your cycling endurance training then you will fly up the hill when the weight is removed.

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At the end of the day what is really important is that you stick to a good regime with cycling endurance training and a good Diet as well endurance and strength will follow shortly.

Endurance Training Secrets

Dr Mel Siff critiques an endurance training article who are allegedly quoting Russian research to support their views – go Mel!zdorovye.com/zdorovye/slavyanskiy.html

This is an extract from that site:

<The Russian Spetsnaz trainers to prepare their operatives for ultra-distance

physical extremes is the arcane endurance running technology called

?Slavyanskiy Byeg?and the total health system: ?Zdorovye?.

In ?Slavyanskiy Byeg? you will learn to coordinate your Carriage and Gait –

which is the process of integrating movement, alignment, and breathing. You

will learn how to virtually run indefinitely – without discomfort and expending

minimal energy. This running methodic teaches you how to wind your body like a

rubber band driven air-plane, using the ligaments and tendons in your body as

your engine, instead of using your large muscles. This is the most amazing

fitness technology ever to be released! >

*While I fully appreciate a great deal of former soviet strength and sports

training as a result of visiting Russia on a few occasions and collaborating

with some of the scientists from that country, I have always been intrigued

why Russian endurance athletes very rarely have matched the achievement of

endurance athletes from Africa, especially those from Kenya. Their dominance

of endurance running has also been a matter of great interest for some

Russian scientists who have been studying these African endurance masters to

ascertain why the Africans generally are far superior to most Russian

endurance runners, but the reasons for their excellence still remain a matter

of a great deal of speculation.

The remarkable endurance of the Khoi and San (?Bushmen?) peoples in extremely

hot desert conditions with no access to exercise science, special foods or

energy replacement fluids is another case of African folk being remarkably

competent. Herein also lies another fascinating lesson that still has to be

dissected adequately.

While many of the Russian methods of training can be very productive and

effective, would this not seem to indicate that we should be turning to

Africa to learn the greatest secrets of endurance athleticism? Would anyone

like to suggest reasons for why African endurance athletes are currently so

dominant? What secrets could they teach the Russians and indeed, the rest of

us?

Is it due to a state of body, a state of mind, genetics, environment,

national outlook or what? This issue has been the topic of an increasing

amount of research and some popular articles and books have been written on

this subject, but none really has taken us much beyond the theories of

genetic superiority or environmental influences.